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post Feb 20 2011, 01:49 PM
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01/01/1945 Fierce air battles over western front, with 188 out of 800 Luftwaffe planes reported shot down during their last major attack of the war.
02/01/1945 Danish saboteurs wreck a V2 factory in Copenhagen. Admiral Sir Bertram Ramsey dies in plane crash near Paris and becomes the fourth prominent allied leader to die like this.
03/01/1945 The U.S. First Army counter-attacks on the northern side of the Ardennes salient. British troops take Akyab in western Burma, unopposed.
04/01/1945 The USA issue's its casualty figures to the 21st December 1944 as 135,323 killed, 362,824 wounded, 75,844 missing and 64,148 captured.
05/01/1945 Australian troops land at Saposa to engage Japanese forces at Waitavolo.
06/01/1945 The ban on dancing is lifted in Finland, where it had been illegal to dance during wartime.
09/01/1945 U.S. troops land at Lingayen Gulf on Luzon. 100,000 men are ashore in a single day, which is the largest Pacific operation so far. British troops enter Thebes, to the Northwest of Athens. The U.S. Third Army counter-attacks towards Houffalize, on the southern side of the Ardennes salient.
10/01/1945 The German 7th Gebirgsdivision retreats from it's positions in Lätäseno. Only a very small portion of Finland is still in German hands.
11/01/1945 U.S. troops establish a firm hold on the Luzon beachhead. British troops capture Laroche, 20 miles Northwest of Bastogne.
12/01/1945 The German 'Nordwind' offensive is stopped 13 miles from Strasbourg. British and U.S. forces link up in the Laroche area. Koniev's 1st Ukrainian Front launches a major winter offensive from its bridgehead across the Vistula at Baranov in southern Poland. General Heinrichs is appointed to the post of the commander of Finnish defense forces.
13/01/1945 The Jørstad Bridge is blown up by the Norwegian resistance, killing 70 Germans. The British make further gains in central Burma and are now only 30 miles from Mandalay. German forces of Army Group E complete their withdrawal from Greece and Albania. Zhukov's 1st Belorussian Front begins an offensive toward Pillkallen in East Prussia, against which their is stiff resistance from the 3rd Panzer Army. The U.S. First Army attack the Germans between Stavelot and Malmady.
14/01/1945 Zhukov's 1st Belorussian Front continues its attacks South of Warsaw from two Vistula bridgeheads, one of which holds 400,000 men and 1,700 tanks. Rokossovsky's 2nd Belorussian Front begins its offensive from its Narev bridgehead against Elbing in East Prussia. The British 19th Indian Division crosses the river Irrawaddy, to the North of
15/01/1945 U.S. troops now hold 45 miles of the Lingayen Gulf coast. During its drive toward the Oder river, the Red Army captures Kielce in western Poland.
16/01/1945 The British Second Army attacks the Germans East of Maas, as the U.S. First and Third Armies meet at Houffalize. The German offensive in the Ardennes is on its last legs.
17/01/1945 Russians forces cross the Warthe and advance 100-miles on a 160-mile front forcing the Germans to evacuate Warsaw, which falls that same day. The German defenders encircled at Budapest withdraw to Buda on the western bank of the Danube. The Red Army captures Czenstochova.
18/01/1945 German troops evacuate Kracow. A German offensive begins from Lake Balaton, with the aim of lifting the Red Army's siege of Budapest. Nazis evacuate 66,000 inmates from Auschwitz back into Germany. British Empire casualties to November 1944 are announced as 282,162 killed, 80,580 missing, 386,374 wounded and 294,438 captured.
19/01/1945 USAAF B29 bombers destroy the Kawasaki aircraft works near Kobe, in Japan. The Russians cross 1939 Poland-Silesia frontier taking Kracow. East Prussia is also entered from south by Russian troops. Red Army forces capture Lodz. Hitler orders that all divisional sized and larger attacks, or retreats must have his approval.
20/01/1945 The French First Army under de Lattre attacks against the Colmar Pocket in Alsace.
21/01/1945 Tannenburg is taken by Red Army, but only after the Germans blow up the memorial. British forces enter Monywa, 60 miles to the West of Mandalay.
22/01/1945 The land route from India to China through Burma is declared free of Japanese and now open to convoys. The Red Army captures Insterburg and Allenstein in East Prussia.
23/01/1945 The 5th Guards Tank Army enters Elbing on Baltic and Koniev reaches the river Oder in Silesia. The Kriegsmarine begins the evacuation by sea of hundreds of thousands of civilian refugees from East Prussia and the Danzig area, the Red Army having cut all land communications with the rest of Germany.
24/01/1945 German forces begin evacuating Slovakia. The 1st Ukrainian Front captures Oppeln and Gleiwitz in Upper Silesia. U.S. troops capture Clark Field, the main Japanese airbase on Luzon. The Royal Navy's Fleet Air Arm carrier planes destroy the Japanese oil refinery near Palembang, on Sumatra.
25/01/1945 Zhukov cuts off the Fortress city of Posen which holds 66,000 Germans and continues his 50-mile a day advance.
26/01/1945 Himmler is put in command of Army Group Vistula by Hitler. The Russians isolate three German armies in East Prussia. The Red Army captures Kattowitz in Upper Silesia. Auschwitz concentration camp is captured by the Russians, but they find fewer than 3,000 survivors as the SS has moved most of the remaining prisoners to camps inside Germany.
27/01/1945 Russians troops capture Memel on Baltic Coast after the German evacuation, which now leaves the whole of Lithuania in Russian hands. German forces begin evacuating the vital coal mining and industrial region of Upper Silesia. Soviet troops liberate Auschwitz. By this time, an estimated 2,000,000 persons, including 1,500,000 Jews, have been murdered there.
28/01/1945 The first convoy for three years reaches China through Burma. The Ardennes salient is finally eradicated.
29/01/1945 The allied thrust into Rhineland continues with the capture of Oberhausen, 10 miles Northeast of Duisberg. Quisling meets Hitler in Berlin for the last time.
30/01/1945 The Wilhelm Gustloff, an ex-Kraft Durch Freude ship (Strength Through Joy) in the service of the German Kriegsmarine, is sunk in the Baltic Sea by a Russian submarine with the loss of over 6,000 lives, making the incident the largest single naval disaster
in history. On the twelfth anniversary of his coming to power, Hitler, calls for fanatical resistance by soldiers and civilians and predicts that "...in this struggle for survival it will not be inner Asia that will conquer, but the people that has defended Europe for centuries against the onslaughts from the East, the German nation..."
31/01/1945 Two of Zhukov’s armies establish a bridgehead on the Oder, to the North of Küstrin and less than 40 miles from Berlin. U.S. planes sink the Japanese floating dock at Singapore.

01/02/1945 The U.S. First Army takes Remscheid, 20 miles to the East of Düsseldorf. The U.S. Seventh Army reaches Moder and Siegfried Line. Troops of the 1st Belorussian Front surround the fortress town of Küstrin. Since the 20th January, the Kriegsmarine has evacuated 140,000 civilian refugees and 18,000 wounded soldiers by sea from East Prussia. U.S. troops land unopposed to the Southwest of Manila.
02/02/1945 HMS Venturer, cued by Ultra, sinks U-864 off Bergen, Norway. The U-boat was bound for Japan, carrying an Me 163 rocket-powered interceptor, 64 tons of mercury, heavy water, some 20 Luftwaffe officers as well as German and Japanese engineers. This is the only known sinking of one submarine by another when both boats were submerged throughout the engagement. Ecuador declares war on Germany. The 1st Belorussian Front reaches the Oder to the South of Frankfurt. French troops occupy Colmar.
03/02/1945 The Russians capture Landsberg, 80 miles Northeast of Berlin. The US 8th Air Force, with 937 bombers and 613 fighters, carries out the heaviest attack to date against Berlin which levels large areas of the city and kills more than 25,000 civilians.
04/02/1945 A summit conference between Stalin, Churchill and Roosevelt opens at Yalta in Crimea, to discuss plans for the treatment of postwar Germany, its division into zones of occupation, reparations and the future Polish western border. The U.S. First Army takes the first of seven Ruhr dams. Belgium is now reported as completely free of German troops.
05/02/1945 Red Army troops approach Elbing and Marienburg in East Prussia. RAF balloon command to be disbanded as the air raid threat lessens. 278 V1's have been claimed by balloons. MacArthur orders a containment in the northern Philippines, as the main effort is directed to the capture of Manila. The Australians land on the Japanese stronghold of New Britain, East of New Guinea.
-day push from the Irrawaddy.
06/02/1945 The 1st Belorussian Front makes further advances to reach the Oder between Küstrin and Frankfurt.
07/02/1945 Russian attacks north of Königsberg are blocked with the help of naval gunfire by the cruisers Scheer and Lützow. The Germans blow up the floodgates in the Ruhr, flooding the area West of Cologne and preventing the use of assault floating bridges by Allies.
08/02/1945 50,000 British and Canadians troops with 500 tanks and 1,034 guns launch a new offensive into the Reichswald, to the Southeast of Nijmegen. Koniev breaks out of his Oder bridgehead north of Breslau, with six armies. UK civilian war casualties up to September 1944 are reported as 57,468 killed and 89,178 injured. Generalmajor Karl Marthinsen, the head of the State Police is assassinated in his car at Blindernveien, Oslo by the resistance movement, Milorg. The Germans execute 29 Norwegians in retaliation. Paraguay declares war on Germany.
09/02/1945 The Red Army encircles Elbing and Posen. British and Canadians troops smash the first of the main Siegfried Line defence zones. The last Rhine bridge is blown in the Colmar Pocket. Half the German Nineteenth Army were evacuated, but General De Lattre's forces have taken 22,000 German prisoners since the 20th January.
10/02/1945 The U.S. First Army captures the seventh and most important Ruhr dam. The 2nd Belorussian Fronts attack towards Neustett is halted by desperate German counter-attacks. The 1st Ukrainian front reaches the Neisse encircling Glogau. Liegnitz is captured by the 1st Ukrainian Front. The remaining defenders of Budapest, some 16,000 men, try to break out from Budapest, although most are killed or captured.
11/02/1945 The Yalta Conference ends. The Red Army the encirclement of the fortress city of Küstrin on the Oder.
12/02/1945 Simultaneous announcements in Moscow, London and Washington about the Yalta agreement. Agreement is reached about the allied occupation of Germany, the founding of the United Nations, the "resettlement" of the inhabitants of the eastern German territories to be ceded to Poland and the entry of the Soviet Union into the war against Japan. Thus far, the Kriegsmarine has evacuated 374,000 German refugees by sea from East and West Prussia. British and Canadians troops advancing from Southeast Holland take Cleve in western Germany. Peru declares war against Germany. The British 20th Indian Division crosses the river Irrawaddy Southwest of Mandalay.
13/02/1945 The British Indian 4th Corps begins to cross Irrawaddy and strike into the Japanese rear. The first use of napalm is made in Burma. U.S. troops capture the last Japanese naval base and airfield on Luzon.Budapest is reported as fully captured by the Russians. The Red Army captures Schneidemül in Pomerania.
14/02/1945 The 1st Ukrainian Front encircles Breslau which has been declared a fortress under the command of Gauleiter Hanke.
Canadian and British troops reach the Rhine, 40 miles Northwest of Duisberg. The RAF launches a heavy attack (over 800 bombers in two separate waves, which is followed the next day by 400 bombers of the US 8th Air Force) against Dresden. The Raids are estimated to have killed in a fire-bombing holocaust, 35,000 to 135,000 people and becomes the most destructive raid of the war in Europe. Uruguay declares war against Germany.
15/02/1945 Japanese forces are now trapped in the Manila rectangle, which is just 5,000yds by 2,000yds. Russian troops are now covering the approaches to Danzig. The Red Army captures Sagan in Silesia. The German 11th SS Army begins a counterattack 'Operation Sonnenwende' with three Korps (39th Panzer, 3rd SS Panzer and the 10th SS Korps). However, only the 3rd SS Panzer Korps (11th SS Panzer Grenadier Division "Nordland" and the 27th SS Grenadier Division "Langemarck") are ready and begin their attack South towards Arnswalde, about 30-35 kms southeast of Stargard.
16/02/1945 The remaining Korps of the 11th SS Army launch their attacks in support of 'Operation Sonnenwende'. U.S. forces begin the intensive bombardment of Iwo Jima, 600 miles South of Japan. U.S. paratroops land on Corregidor Island, a Japanese stronghold in Manila Bay.
16/02/1945 A USN Task Force reports pounding targets around Tokyo.
17/02/1945 U.S. troops capture the whole of the Bataan Peninsula, which commands Manila Bay in Philippines. The U.S. Third Army launches a new offensive into Germany, having pierced the Siegfried Line on a 11-mile front.
18/02/1945 The Red Army encircles Graudenz on the Vistula. Troops of the 11th SS Army are brought to a stand still by stiffening Soviet resistance to 'Operation Sonnenwende'. A Russian torpedo hits the ex-’Strength through Joy’ Nazi cruise liner leaving Danzig for Denmark with 5,000 refugees and 3,800 U-boat personnel on board. Only 1,000 are reported as saved.
19/02/1945 After a heavy bombardment, 30,000 US Marines land on Iwo Jima, but suffer 2,420 casualties on the first day. German forces re-establish communications between Königsberg and the port of Pillau, thus again enabling tens of thousands of German refugees to be evacuated to the west by ships of the Kriegsmarine. 'Operation Sonnenwende' is finally ended in the face of ever strengthening Red Army resistance. The operation was a complete military failure, although did show that the German Army could still organise and mount limited counter-attacks.
20/02/1945 Red Army attacks against the lines of Army Group Courland fail in the face of stubborn German resistance. The RAF launch the first of 36 consecutive night raids on Berlin.
21/02/1945 The US 8th Air Force launches another heavy attack (over 1,000 bombers) against Nürnberg. The 1st Ukrainian Front captures Guben. The British 2nd Division establishes another Irrawaddy bridgehead, while the British 36th Division breaks through at Myitson, in northern Burma. Meanwhile further British forces cross the Irrawaddy in central Burma.
22/02/1945 After a heavy four-day battle, the U.S Fifth Army takes the Upper Reno Valley in northern Italy between Bologna and Florence. The allies launch Operation 'Clarion', which consisted of 10,000 air attacks
on communications in central Germany.
23/02/1945 The Russians capture the fortress of Posen after a month-long siege. The US Ninth Army begins an offensive from its bridgeheads on the Roer river leading to the bloody battle of the Hürtgen Forest. US paratroops spring 2,146 detainees from a Japanese camp South of Manila in surprise attack, during which 243 Japanese are killed for loss of just two U.S. killed and two injured. U.S. Marines storm Mt. Suribachi on Iwo Jima and raise the U.S. flag.
24/02/1945 German U-boats sink 8 ships and 2 destroyers from a convoy bound for the Russian port of Murmansk. U.S. Marines capture a second airfield on Iwo Jima. A haggard and aged-looking Hitler addresses his Gauleiters and Reichsleiters for what proves to be the last time in the Reich Chancellery in Berlin on the occasion of the 25th anniversary of the proclamation of the Nazi Party program. Perhaps sensitive to the likelihood of public scepticism and derision, he refuses to allow the speech to be broadcast or even reported to the public at large. A German counter attack wipes out the Russian Hron bridgehead over the Danube to the northwest of Budapest.
25/02/1945 Turkey declares war against Germany. Turkey declares war against Germany. 400 RAF bombers carry out attacks against Dortmund and Rheine.
26/02/1945 The attacks by the US Ninth Army into the Hürtgen Forest make little progress. Army Group Courland repulses heavy Red Army attacks in the area of Prekuln. U.S. Marines land on Verde Island, to the Southeast of Manila.
27/02/1945 Under Russian pressure, the Romanian King, Michael I is forced to appoint a Communist government. The US 8th Air Force launches another heavy attack against Berlin which devastates the center of the city. SHAEF reports that spectacular gains by the U.S. First and Ninth Armies on the Cologne Plain have been made.
28/02/1945 The US Ninth Army achieves a breakthrough near Erkelenz 30 miles to the West of Cologne, but loses 100 tanks in the process. The 2nd Belorussian Front captures Neustettin. The Red Army suspends all further offensive operations against the lines of Army Group Courland. U.S. Marines take Motoyama on Iwo Jima after a bloody battle. Corregidor is reported as clear of Japanese troops. The British Indian 4th Corps take Meiktila airfield in central Burma after an eight

01/03/1945 The US Ninth Army captures München-Gladbach and Rheydt west of the Rhine. Units of Army Group Centre recapture Lauban in lower Silesia. The fighting ends in Manila.
02/03/1945 Armoured spearheads of the US Ninth Army reach the Rhine near Neuss. The U.S. Third Army captures Trier on the Moselle. The RAF launches a heavy attack (300 bombers) against Mannheim, causing a devastating firestorm.
03/03/1945 100 Luftwaffe night-fighters attack 27 RAF airfields, in what is the last night intrusion raid of the war. 22 RAF aircraft were destroyed for 6 German. Units of the Canadian First Army capture Xanten on the lower Rhine in the battle of the Reichswald. The US First Army captures Krefeld. Japanese resistance ends in Meiktila.
04/03/1945 The First Belorussian Front breaks through at Stargard and drives towards Stettin and also establishes a new bridgehead across the Oder to the South of Frankfurt.
05/03/1945 The German 2nd Army is cut off in Pomerania as the Russian 19th Army reaches the Baltic. The fortress city of Graudenz on the Vistula surrenders to troops of the 2nd Belorussian Front. Advance patrols of the U.S. First Army reach Cologne. Germany is now conscripting 15 and 16-year-olds into the regular army.
06/03/1945 The U.S. Third Army reaches the Rhine Northwest of Koblenz, as Cologne falls to U.S. First Army. The 2nd Panzer and 6th SS Panzer Armies launch a major counter-attack from Lake Balaton towards Budapest. The US 8th Air Force launches a heavy attack against Chemnitz in Saxony. The new Chinese First Army takes Lashio in north-eastern Burma.
07/03/1945 The U.S. 9th Armoured Division makes a surprise dash across the undestroyed Rhine bridge at Remagen, establishing a crucial bridgehead on the East bank.
08/03/1945 British and Canadian troops involved in Operation 'Blockbuster' enter Xanten on the Rhine after several days of heavy fighting further to the South U.S. troops enter Bonn.
08/03/1945 The Red Army penetrates into the southern suburbs of Breslau. Beginning of secret negotiations at Bern, Switzerland, between representatives of the American OSS (Allan Dulles) and the German High Command in Italy (General von Vietinghoff and SS General Wolff) for an early surrender of German forces in Italy.
09/03/1945 The U.S. First Army widens the Remagen bridgehead. The US Third Army captures Andernach on the Rhine. In an attempt to break the Japanese morale and wear away resistance to surrender, the USAAF begins the firebombing of Japans major city's with a raid by 334 B-German light naval vessels from the still German-occupied British Channel Islands enter the allied supply port of Granville in Bretagne, sinking five ships.
10/03/1945 Field Marshal Kesselring replaces Field Marshal von Rundstedt as C-in-C of German forces in the West. German troops evacuate Wesel on the lower Rhine. The US Third Army captures Bonn. The 2nd Belorussian Front captures Zoppot, during its attack towards Danzig. The Kriegsmarine evacuates 25,000 civilian refugees from the besieged Baltic fortress of Kolberg in Pomerania.
11/03/1945 The Red Army advances towards Gotenhafen, a vital port of embarkation for tens of thousands of refugees from East Prussia. The US third Army captures Kochem on the lower Moselle river. An RAF Bomber Command record for the largest tonnage dropped on a single target in single day is achieved at Essen when 4,661 tons are dropped.
12/03/1945 RAF Bomber Command sets another new record for single target, when 4,851 tons are dropped on Dortmund.
13/03/1945 Following a 600-bomber raid by the US 8th Air Force, the RAF with 800 bombers attacks Swinemünde North of Stettin, a major port of disembarkation for German refugees from eastern Germany, causing heavy damage to the docks and killing hundreds of civilians. The 2nd Belorussian Front launches an offensive against the Braunsberg pocket to the South of Königsberg. A surprise armoured thrust by the British in central Burma, cuts off 3,000 Japanese in Mandalay.
14/03/1945 German counterattacks to recapture the oilfields near Lake Balaton come to an end. The Red Army cuts all communications between Königsberg and the German forces fighting in the Braunsberg pocket. The U.S. Third Army crosses the Moselle, Southwest of Koblenz. U.S. troops begin mopping up on Iwo Jima and launch heavy attacks in the North of the island. RAF Bomber Command make its first use of the 22,000lb ‘Grand Slam’ bomb, wrecking the Bielefeld viaduct. The US 15th Air Force, taking off from Italian airfields, launches a heavy raid (500 bombers) against Regensburg, while the RAF attacks Wuppertal with 400 aircraft.
15/03/1945 U.S. troops report slow progress on Luzon in the Philippines. Attacks by troops of the US First Army to expand the Remagen bridgehead further, meet with little success. The Soviet 1st Ukrainian Front begins an offensive in the Ratibor area of Upper Silesia.
16/03/1945 Two fresh Soviet armies of the 3rd Ukrainian Front counter attack the German offensive towards Budapest. The US 8th Air Force launches a massive attack (675 bombers) against the HQ complex of the OKH at Zossen 20 miles south of Berlin, but with minimal effect. The German Heavy Cruisers Schlesien and Prinz Eugen give supporting fire forces of Heeresgruppe Kurland in their defense of the Kurland pocket.
17/03/1945 The U.S. Third Army takes Koblenz. The Ludendorff bridge at Remagen, seized by US troops on the 7th March, suddenly collapses, killing dozens of US Army engineers working to reinforce it.
18/03/1945 The US Third Army captures Boppard on the Rhine. Kolberg falls to the Polish 1st Army, of the 2nd Belorussian Front, although the Germans manage to evacuate 80,000 refugees and wounded first.
19/03/1945 The U.S. Seventh Army take Worms, 60 miles to the Southeast of Koblenz. Hitler orders the demolition of all German industrial, utility and transport facilities in danger of falling into enemy hands; this order (Verbrannte Erde Scorched Earth) is sabotaged by armaments minister Speer and most local commanders. The USN hit Kure naval base in the Inland Sea, Southwest of Tokyo. The US 8th Air Force carries out another heavy attack (200 bombers and 700 fighters) against Berlin. The Japanese evacuate Mandalay.
20/03/1945 The British 19th Indian Division completes the capture of Mandalay. The U.S. Seventh Army takes Saarbrücken. German troops of Army Group Weichsel evacuate their bridgehead across the Oder at Stettin. The Russians capture Braunsberg, 40 miles South of Königsberg.
21/03/1945 The Russians capture Stuhlweissenburg in Hungary. Units of the U.S. First Army advances from the Remagen bridgehead toward Siegburg. The US 8th Air Force launches a major attack (650 bombers) against Hamburg.
22/03/1945 The U.S. First Army's bridgehead at Remagen is now 30 miles long. Units of the US Third Army cross the Rhine at Oppenheim south of Mainz against minimal German resistance.
23/03/1945 The U.S. Third Army crosses the Rhine North of Worms, as the British Second and Canadian First Armies begin their assault across the Rhine above the Ruhr. The Russians reach the outskirts of Danzig and Gotenhafen. The RAF launches a devastating raid (300 bombers) against Hildesheim near Hannover, a small city of little military and industrial importance.
24/03/1945 The 1st Ukrainian Front captures Neisse in Upper Silesia. Montgomery's 21st Army Group attacks across the Rhine, 15 miles North of Duisberg in the Wesel area, after 3,500-gun barrage. 16,870 paratroops land across the river Rhine in Operation 'Plunder' and succeed in linking up with advancing British troops and establishing four bridgeheads. The US Third Army captures Speyer and Ludwigshafen on the upper Rhine. U.S. Marines seize islands off coast of Okinawa in Pacific. Chinese forces link up on the Burma Road.
25/03/1945 The U.S. Navy begins the pre-invasion bombardment of Okinawa firing more than half a million shells and rockets in a week. The U.S. First Army breaks out of the Remagen bridgehead. The British Second Army captures Wesel which has been nearly 100% destroyed by Allied bombing.
26/03/1945 The U.S. Third Army reaches Main and establishes contact with U.S. Seventh Army on the East side of Rhine, near Worms. The US Third Army captures Darmstadt. The Russians take Papa and Devecser, both German strong points covering the approaches to the Austrian border. The Reichsführer-SS is replaced by General Heinrici as Commander in Chief of Army Group Weichsel. The last organised Japanese troops on Iwo Jima make a suicide attack. Total U.S. killed on Iwo Jima is 6,891, with more than 20,000 Japanese being killed and only 216 captured.
27/03/1945 The 1,115th and last V2 to reach England lands in Kynaston Road, Orpington, Kent, England. Bitter street fighting in Danzig as the Russians force their way into the city's defenses. A German counterattack from the Frankfurt bridgehead toward Küstrin bogs down after only a few miles. The allied bridgehead north of Ruhr is now 700 square miles. 16,257 POW's are taken for 6,781 allied casualties in four days. The U.S. Third Army captures Aschaffenburg.
28/03/1945 The British Second Army begin its drive towards the Elbe as the U.S. First Army captures Marburg, 60 miles Northeast of Koblenz. The US Third Army captures Limburg on the Lahn. The 1st Belorussian Front captures Gotenhafen (Gdynia) north of Danzig, along with 9,000 prisoners, after a long struggle. Hitler replaces General Guderian with General Krebs as chief of OKH. Argentina declares war against Germany.
29 Superfortress bombers on Tokyo, saturating the city's crowded downtown residential district. 16 and a half acres of Tokyo are burnt out and 100,000 people killed in a single night. The attacks by the USAAF continue against Tokyo for 10 days, before switching to Nagoya, Osaka and Kobe.
29/03/1945 Troops of the 1st Belorussian Front finally capture the fortress town of Küstrin against desperate German resistance. The Russians seize the oilfields South of Komorn in Hungary, the last source of petroleum for the German war effort. The U.S. Seventh Army takes Mannheim and the U.S. Third Army takes Wiesbaden and Frankfurt.
30/03/1945 Russians troops finally capture Danzig, along with 45 U-boats and 10,000 prisoners. Breslau and Glogau are surrounded, 180 miles South East of Berlin. Russian troops cross the Austrian border to the North of Koszeg. German troops of Army Group Weichsel evacuate their last remaining bridgehead at Wollin to the North of Stettin. The U.S. First Army begins a 3 day battle for Paderborn.
31/03/1945 The Germans start pulling out of Holland. The French First Army crosses the Rhine for first time since Napoleon. The US Third Army reaches Siegen 20 miles East of the Rhine. The Russians enters German territory near Sopron in Hungary. The Russian capture Ratibor in Upper Silesia. British 26th Division reaches the Burma Road, which ends eight months of fighting.

01/04/1945 The U.S. First and Ninth Armies link up at Lippstadt cutting off a third of a million German troops in the Ruhr area. The U.S. First Army enters Hamm, 40 miles Northeast of Essen. The 3rd Ukrainian Front capture Sopron in Hungary, a vital road junction between Budapest and Vienna and also reaches Wiener Neustadt as it continues its advance toward Vienna. The fighting in Breslau continues. The U.S. Tenth Army, with 1,457 ships in support, invades Okinawa which is 325 miles from Japan. 60,000 troops land unopposed and establish an 8-mile bridgehead.
02/04/1945 The 3rd Ukrainian Front and Bulgarian forces take Nagykanizsa, thereby gaining control of the main Hungarian oil production region. 2nd Ukrainian front under Malinovsky conquers the industrial area of Mosonmagyarovar and reaches the Austrian border between Dounau and the Neusiedler lake. The British 7th Armoured Division enters Rhine on Dortmund-Ems canal, 60 miles Northeast of Essen.
03/04/1945 The British Second Army reaches Münster; the U.S. Ninth Army captures Recklinghausen in the Ruhr, while the US First Army takes Fulda and Kassel. The Austrian resistance leader Major Szokoll and Russian military authorities confer about co-operation on the Russian offensive against Vienna. The 2nd Ukrainian front advances close to Vienna. The Russians breaches the German defensive lines between Wiener Neustadt and Neusiedler lake. Hard fighting continues as the Red Army advances towards Bratislava. MacArthur is appointed as C-in-C of land forces in the Pacific. Admiral Nimitz is appointed as C-in-C of all naval forces in the Pacific.
04/04/1945 The Russian 2nd and 3rd Ukrainian front complete the liberation of Hungary. Troops of the 2nd Ukrainian front capture Bratislava. The Germans forces counterattack in Moravska-Ostrava and Nitra. The US Third Army advancing toward Leipzig takes Suhl and Gotha and finally clears Kassel of German resistance. The British Second Army captures Osnabrück. The French First Army enters Karlsruhe. Ohrdruf camp is liberated by the Americans. The US 8th Air Force launches its heaviest raid to date (700 bombers) against Kiel on the Baltic.
05/04/1945 The US 8th Air Force carries out another heavy attack (450 bombers) against Kiel. During a raid on Kiel by the U.S. 8th Air Force, severe damage is caused to the cruisers Hipper and Emden. Eighteen U.S. divisions begin the clearance of Ruhr Pocket. The French First Army captures Karlsruhe on the upper Rhine. The 3rd Ukrainian Front reaches the railway North West of Vienna, cutting rail link with Linz. A U.S. military government is established on Okinawa. Soviet Foreign Minister Molotov summons Japanese Ambassador Sato to inform him of the Soviet Union’s intention to renounce the 1941 neutrality pact between the two countries, thus signaling the failure of Japan’s increasingly strenuous efforts to ensure ongoing Soviet neutrality as the war’s tide turned against Japan.
06/04/1945 The U.S. fleet off Okinawa is hit by the first suicide raid, code named ‘Floating Chrysanthemum I’. During this attack, three destroyers are sunk, while 116 Japanese aircraft are destroyed. Preceded by a tremendous artillery and air bombardment, the 3rd Belorussian Front with Four armies, 137,000 men, 530 tanks and 2,400 aircraft begin their final assault against Königsberg, which is held by 35,000 Germans troops. The Battle for Vienna begins. Sarajevo falls into the hands of Yugoslav partisans.
07/04/1945 In Yugoslavia, German Army Group E under General Löhr evacuates it remaining troops from Sarajevo. The U.S. First Army takes Göttingen, 25 miles Northeast of Kassel. The US Ninth Army captures Hameln and Eisenach. Army Group Centre under General Schörner continues with its attacks against the 2nd and 4th Ukrainian front. The first land-based U.S. fighters from Iwo Jima overfly Japan. The battle of East China Sea begins as U.S. aircraft from Task Force 58 sink the Japanese super-battleship Yamato in a three-hour battle, 60 miles to the Southeast of Japan. Japanese casualties are reported as 2,488 sailors killed, four destroyers sunk, 58 aircraft destroyed.
08/04/1945 The 2nd Ukrainian front continues its advance into northern Czechoslovakia and establishes a bridgehead across the rivers Morava and Donau (East and Northeast of Vienna). Heavy fighting in the centre of Vienna. The Red Air Force drops 1,500 tons of bombs on Königsberg. Russians secure Königsberg, after the commander of "fortress Königsberg" General Lasch surrenders. A British SAS Brigade paratroops into eastern Holland, to clear the way for Canadians troops who are moving North. The British Second Army reaches Hildesheim, while the US Seventh Army captures Pforzheim near the upper Rhine.
09/04/1945 The British Eighth Army launches its final offensive in Italy with a 1,800-plane and 1,500-gun bombardment of the German positions East of Bologna. The U.S. Fifth Army begins its offensive toward Bologna and the Po river valley. Army Group E is now completely isolated from the main German forces, but continues its struggle against Titos partisan forces in Yugoslavia.
10/04/1945 The Canadian First Army continues its push North into Holland, taking Deventer, 30 miles North of Nijmegen. The British Second Army takes Wildenhausen, 20 miles Southwest of Bremen. The U.S. Ninth Army takes Hanover. Churchill reveals British Empire casualty figures up to this point as 306,984 killed. Total casualties are 1,126,802, merchant navy losing 34,161 dead or captured. Civilians casualties are 59,793 killed and 84,749 injured. With the battle of Vienna ongoing, the German 6th SS Panzer Army succeeds in defeating fierce Russian attacks into the districts of Wiener Neustadt and to the west of Baden. The besieged Germans in Breslau continue to repel the repeated Russian attacks. A German war communiqué now declares that the resistance in Königsberg has ceased, but that no surrender has occurred. Buchenwald Concentration Camp is liberated by the Allies. The German heavy cruiser Admiral Scheer is sunk during a massive RAF raid on Kiel. The RAF attack Kiel, while the US 8th Air Force launches its heaviest raid to date (1,232 bombers) against Berlin.
11/04/1945 The Russians now reaches the centre of Vienna, capturing the parliament and town hall buildings. The U.S. Third Army takes the historic town of Weimar. The British Second Army takes Celle, 30 miles Northeast of Hanover, cutting the road to Hamburg. The U.S. Ninth Army capture Essen, Bochum and Goslar in the Harz Mountains. The U.S. Seventh Army reaches Schweinfurt, 80 miles to the East of Frankfurt.
12/04/1945 The U.S. Ninth Army crosses the Elbe, taking Brunswick. The U.S. Third Army takes Erfurt. French troops take Baden-Baden on the southern flank. The U.S. 6th Armoured Division overruns Buchenwald concentration camp. The British Second Army captures Celle 60 miles to the South of Hamburg. In Yugoslavia the Germans evacuates Zenica. A German war communiqué confesses that Königsberg did surrender and announces the death penalty for the fortresses commander, General Lasch. After suffering a massive cerebral hemorrhage, President Roosevelt dies at Warm Springs in Georgia, aged 63. Harry Truman is sworn in as 32nd President of the United States.
13/04/1945 Troops of the Russian 2nd and 3rd Ukrainian front complete the capture of Vienna. A local truce is declared near Celle so that the British Second Army can take over the notorious Belsen concentration camp. The U.S. Ninth Army clears the Duisberg Pocket. The US Third Army captures Erfurt and Weimar. The U.S. Fleet begins the pre-invasion bombardment of Ie Island in the Pacific. The Chinese launch a new offensive in Honan and Hupeh provinces of Central China.
14/04/1945 Yamethin falls to the British 4th Corps in the ‘Race for Rangoon’. U.S. troops split the Ruhr Pocket in two at Hagen. Glider troops capture the ex-German Chancellor von Papen at a hunting-lodge near Stockhausen along with three generals. The French launch a final assault on the trapped German garrison at Bordeaux. The British Second Army reaches the outskirts of Bremen, while the US Third Army captures Gera and Bayreuth. The Canadian First Army assumes military control of the Netherlands where German forces are now trapped in the Atlantic wall fortifications along the coastline. The British Eighth Army captures Bastia bridge intact, while Hitler rejects an appeal for a German withdrawal to the Po river. The Germans announce that Army Group Weichsel under General Henrici, is being heavily engaged by the Russians at Frankfurt an der Oder.
15/04/1945 The 3rd Ukrainian front occupies Radkesburg during its offensive against the industrial area of Mührisch-Ostrau in Moravia. The 2nd Ukrainian front attacks towards Brno in Czechoslovakia. The Canadian First Army reaches the coast in northern Holland and captures
Arnhem in the South. The US First Army captures Leuna and Merseburg in Saxony, while the French First Army captures Kehl and Offenburg on the upper Rhine. British troops liberate Bergen-Belsen Concentration Camp and free approximately 40,000 prisoners. It is reported that "both inside and outside the huts was a carpet of dead bodies, human excreta, rags and filth."
16/04/1945 Off the Hela peninsula in the Baltic, the German liner Goya is torpedoed by a Russian submarine, killing 6,500 wounded soldiers and refugees. In northern Holland the Canadians take Harlingen, 50 miles Northeast of Amsterdam and occupies Leeuwarden and Groningen. The US First Army captures Solingen and Wuppertal. Hitler issues the last Order of the Day to the Eastern Front, saying ‘He who gives orders to retreat . . . is to be shot on the spot’ as the 1st Belorussian Front and the 1st Ukrainian Front start the final offensive on Berlin from along the Oder-Neisse line. The British take Taungup in Southwest Burma, thereby depriving the Japanese of their last coastal supply base. U.S. landings begin on Le Island and three airfields are taken.
17/04/1945 The battle for Berlin escalates a breakthrough is made by the 1st Ukrainian front. However, the 1st Belorussian Fronts offensive against Berlin is stalled by tenacious German resistance on the Seelow Heights, 2 miles West of the Oder, with great losses of troops and tanks for the Russians. The situation for the German 6th SS Panzer Army in Austria is now critical at St.Polten. The Russians occupies Wilhelmsburg.
18/04/1945 Between Stettin and Schwedt the 2nd Belorussian front breaks through the Oder defenses, pressuring Army Group Weichsel even more. The 1st Ukrainian Front captures Forst on the Neisse river. North of Frankfurt, while the 1st Belorussian Front continues its attack to take the Seelow Heights, gradually wearing down the vastly outnumbered German defenders. The Ruhr pocket is finally annihilated, with 317,000 Germans being captured, including 29 generals. The U.S. Ninth Army takes Magdeburg. The U.S. First Army enters Düsseldorf. General De Lattre’s French troops link up at Freudenstadt behind the Black Forest. The British Second Army captures Ülzen and Lüneburg. The US Third Army captures Nürnberg advancing units across the German/Czechoslovakian frontier. The British Fourteenth Army in central Burma captures the Chaulk oil centre on the Irrawaddy.
19/04/1945 U.S. troops encounter very stiff resistance by the Japanese at ‘Bloody Ridge’ on Ie Island. The British Second Army reaches the Elbe and launches an attack on Bremen. The U.S. First Army captures Leipzig and Halle, 50 miles South of Magdeburg. On the eve of Hitler's 56th birthday, Dr. Goebbels exhorts the nation and predicts that in spite of all misfortunes Germany will yet prevail, that the "perverse coalition between Bolshevism and Plutocracy" is about to break up, and that it is Adolf Hitler ("Our Hitler!") who will still turn back the tide and save Europe, as he has thus far, from falling into the clutches of the Kremlin. The 1st Belorussian Front finally breaks through the German defenses on the Seelow heights, despite heavy losses in men and tanks (over 400 in two days) and races towards Berlin.
20/04/1945 The British Home Secretary says that 60,585 British civilians have died and 86,175 have been seriously injured in air attacks since outbreak of war. Russian artillery begins to shell Berlin. The Germans desperately counterattack both North and South of Frankfurt am der Oder. A Furious battle takes place at Sternbeck and Protzel. In Czechoslovakia the Russian pressure increases at Moravska-Ostrava and Brno.
20/04/1945 The U.S. Seventh Army takes Nuremberg. The U.S. Fifth Army reaches the Po river Plain in northern Italy as a German retreat to river ordered.
21/04/1945 The 2nd Polish Corps which is fighting with the British Eighth Army captures Bologna in co-ordination with the U.S. 34th Division, of the U.S. Fifth Army. The U.S. Ninth Army captures Blankenburg, 80 miles to the East of Kassel. The U.S. First Army take Dessau. The French First Army captures Stuttgart along with 28,000 prisoners and crosses the Danube. Field Marshal Model, commits suicide. German troops keep up their resistance around Elbingerode in the Harz Mountains. The Soviet 1st Ukrainian Front captures Bautzen and Cottbus 70 miles southeast of Berlin. German troops still hold out in the port of Pillau. U.S. troops take ‘Bloody Ridge’ on Okinawa.
22/04/1945 The U.S. campaign in the central Philippines officially ends with the capture of Cebu Island. Hitler decides to stay in Berlin to the end. The 1st Belorussian Front penetrates into the northern and eastern suburbs of Berlin. The U.S. First and Ninth Armies clear all German resistance in the Harz Mountains, 40 miles Southwest of Magdeburg. The U.S. Seventh Army captures a bridge across the Danube. The British Second Army is fighting in the outskirts of Bremen. The U.S. Third Army starts its drive down the Danube valley as the French First Army reaches Lake Constance on the Swiss/ German border. Hitler, ignoring the pleas of his entourage, decides to stay in his bunker at Berlin to await the inevitable end.
23/04/1945 Dessau is reported as clear of German troops. The British Second Army reaches Harburg across the Elbe from Hamburg. Frankfurt is captured. Goring telegraphs Hitler saying that he will take over command as Hitler’s Deputy. Hitler says he must resign all his posts and orders Goring’s arrest. Reichsführer-SS Himmler begins secret negotiations for a separate peace in the West with Count Bernadotte, head of the Swedish Red Cross. The U.S. Fifth and British Eighth Armies reach the Po, to the North of Bologna.
24/04/1945 The Eighth Army captures Ferrara, 30 miles to the Northeast of Bologna and crosses the Po after fierce fighting. The U.S. Fifth Army takes Spezia on the Gulf of Genoa and Modern. The British Second and Canadian First Armies enter Bremen. The U.S. First Army liberates Dachau concentration camp. The US Seventh Army crosses the Danube at Dillingen and captures Ulm. The Japanese Burma Area Army C-in-C leaves Rangoon. The British Fourteenth Army takes Pyinmana in central Burma.
25/04/1945 Beginning of the San Francisco Conference convened to discuss the founding of the United Nations. The U.S. Third Army crosses the Danube, 70 miles Northeast of Munich. The RAF attacks the ‘Eagle’s Nest’, Hitler’s chalet and the SS barracks at Berchtesgarten. Troops of the U.S. Ninth Army and the Soviet 1st Ukrainian Front meet on the Elbe at Torgau, 100 miles Southwest of Berlin. The U.S. Fifth Army enters Mantua, 60 miles Northwest of Bologna and continues its drive up coast, while the British Eighth Army crosses the Po river and captures Parma. Russian and U.S. troops meet at Torgau on Elbe, 60 miles West of Berlin. Russian units of the 1st Belorussian and 1st Ukrainian Fronts meet at Kietzen west of Berlin, meaning that eight Russian armies have now surrounded Berlin in a vice like grip. The suburbs Tegel and Reinickendorf fall into Russian hands. A relief attack by the III Panzer Korps from the area of Eberswalde 50 miles northeast of Berlin fails. German U-boats sink 5 allied supply ships in the English Channel. The last Germans troops withdraw into Norway from Finland.
26/04/1945 The 2nd Belorussian front captures Stettin on the river Oder, while the 3rd Belorussian Front captures the Baltic port of Pillau, 20 miles West of Königsberg. General Wenck embarks on the last German offensive to relieve Berlin, but only manages to reach Ferch on the 27th April, before the offensive grinds to a halt. The remnants of 9th Army are cut off and surrounded in the Halbe pocket 30 miles southwest of Frankfurt am der Oder. The 2nd Ukrainian Front captures Brno, in Czechoslovakia. Italian Partisans take Genoa and stage revolt in Milan. The U.S. Fifth Army captures Verona, 20 miles Northeast of Mantua. German troops at Bremen surrender to the British and Canadians. Allied troops now line the Swiss border from Basle to Lake Constance. The U.S. Third Army takes Regensburg on the Danube. Goering’s fall from grace announced in Germany, General Ritter von Greim is to replace him.
27/04/1945 The U.S. First Army captures Straubing and Kempten in Bavaria. The U.S. Fifth Army enters Genoa. The Russians take Wittemberge on Elbe. Russian troops reach the Alexanderplatz in Berlin and Spandau is taken. The 2nd Belorussian front advances in Pomerania seizes Prenzlau and Angermunde, 70 miles northwest of Berlin. The German 9th Army tries to reach Berlin from the southeast and even counterattacks at Zossen. The German 20th Army does the same Southeast of Belzig. The German High command confesses that the last German forces in Pillau, East Prussia have surrendered. Total V2-weapon casualties in Britain are announced as 2,754 killed and 6,523 seriously injured.
28/04/1945 The U.S. Fifth Army take Brescia, 30 miles East of Milan. The British Eighth Army reaches Venice. Italian Partisans capture Mussolini, his mistress Clara Petacci and 12 of his cabinet members in a German convoy trying to reach Switzerland. All are shot in nearby village. The Canadian First Army captures Emden and Wilhelmshaven, while the U.S. Seventh Army takes Augsburg and reaches the Austrian border to the South. Hitler marries his mistress, Eva Braun, and dictates his political testament in which he justifies the political and military actions of his 12-year-rule, blaming the war on international Jewry and exhorting the German people even after defeat to adhere to the principles of National Socialism, especially its racial laws. Grossadmiral Dönitz is appointed as his successor. Russian forces are fighting in the Wilhelmstrasse and reach the Anhalt Station which is just half a mile of the Führerbunker. German U-boats sink 8 Allied ships, 3 destroyers and 2 corvettes in the English channel.
29/04/1945 The U.S. 7th Army liberates Dachau Concentration Camp. Convoy RA-66 sailing from the Kola Peninsula to Loch Ewe is attacked by at least 2 U-boats north of Kola. The British destroyer HMS Goodall, which was lend-leased by the US in 1943 is sunk by U-286 (Oblt.z.S. Willi Dietrich), for 1,150 tons, marking this as the last convoy to come under attack in the war. During the night Hitler marries Eva Braun, his mistress, writes a will and appoints Admiral Donitz as his successor. The 2nd Belorussian front advances fast in the Stralsund direction and seizes Anklam. In Berlin furious fighting takes place around the Reichstag, Chancellery and along Potsdamer Strasse. In Cottbus, South of Berlin, German troops are still holding the Russians back. The British Second Army crosses the Elbe near Hamburg, less than 100 miles west of the Russian forces in Mecklenburg. The U.S. Seventh Army reaches Munich. The French First Army captures Friedrichshafen on Lake Constance. The bodies of Mussolini and Clara Petacci are brought to Milan and hung upside down from lamp-posts in the square where 15 Partisans were executed a year ago. The bodies are shot and spat upon. The Germans armies in Italy sign surrender terms at The Royal Palace, Caserta, but German officers do not guarantee acceptance, the ceremony takes only 17 minutes. The British Eighth Army secures Venice and advances towards Trieste. The U.S. Fifth Army enters Milan and makes contact with the Eighth Army at Padua. The RAF begin Operation 'Manna', supply drops into Holland.
30/04/1945 Allied Norwegian forces capture FinnmarkThe U.S. Fifth Army in Northwest Italy, links up with French troops on the French/Italian border. The Mexican Air Force's 201 Squadron arrives at Manila. In operations from 4 June, 1945 to the end of the war, the 201 flies 96 combat missions, mostly in support of ground troops. The 201 will be the only Mexican unit to see overseas combat in theHitler commits suicide with Eva Braun. The U.S. Third Army liberates 110,000 POW's in the Moosburg area, Northeast of Munich. The U.S. Seventh Army clears Munich and the French takes Friedrichshafen and cross into Austria. The U.S. First Army meet the Russians at Ellenburg, South of Berlin. The British Second Army liberates 20,000 prisoners (two third POW's and one third political prisoners) from Sandbostel camp in northern Germany. With the Red Army only a few hundred yards away, Hitler commits suicide with Eva Braun in the Reich Chancellery bunker at 1530hrs and their bodies immediately incinerated with gasoline by SS bodyguards. A Sergeant of the Russian Army plant the Red Flag on top of the Reichstag building at 2.30 pm. As the final Russian assault on Tiergarten begins, Goebbels and Bormann send General Krebs, Chief of the General Staff to the headquarters of Marshal Zhukov with a permit to make an armistice, but Zhukov refuses and demands an unconditional surrender. Troops of the 4th Ukrainian front capture Moravska Ostrava. Fighting continues in Breslau, as the German garrison refuses to surrender

01/05/1945 The Australians land on Tarakan Island off Borneo. Indian paratroops land to the South of Rangoon, as the Fourteenth Army captures Pegu. Grossadmiral Dönitz, following the death of Hitler, assumes his duties as the new German head of state. He orders the utmost resistance in the East where tens of thousands of German civilians are still trying to escape from the stampeding Red Army. The cessation of hostilities and surrender of all German forces in Italy is announced. This is as a result of unauthorised and secret negotiations with the allies by the German C-in-C, General von Vietinghoff. and SS General Wolff. New Zealand troops capture Udine, 60 miles Northeast of Venice and makes contact with Tito’s partisans in the Trieste area. The situation is now desperate for the surrounded Germans of Army Group E in Yugoslavia as Titos partisans reach the river Isonzo near Monfalcone. Grossadmiral Dönitz, following the death of Hitler, assumes his duties as the new German head of state. The U.S. Ninth and British Second Armies link bridgeheads over the Elbe. General Walther Wenck’s Twelfth Army falls back to Elbe with wounded and refugees and try's to negotiate with U.S. forces. The U.S. Third Army reaches the German/Austrian border at Braunan, 70 miles East of Munich.
02/05/1945 The British Second Army reaches Lübeck. The first lorry convoys carrying relief supplies to occupied Holland are allowed through German lines. The German Army in Italy abides by the Caserta agreement and surrenders to the allies, with hostilities ceasing at 12 noon GMT. General Weidling, the commander of Berlins Garrison meets with General Chuikov and accepts his terms of unconditional surrender of Berlin. The garrison in Berlin surrenders to 1st Belorussian and 1st Ukrainian Armies at 3pm local time. During the 2 week battle for the German Capital, the Russians suffer more than 300,000 casualties and while it is hard to estimate German casualties, the figure of 480,000 German prisoners says a lot. RAF Bomber Command, launch its last major action of war against Kiel. Theresienstadt taken over by the Red Cross.
03/05/1945 SEAC announces the liberation of Rangoon in Burma. The Russians make contact with the U.S. 9th Army in the Wismar area. SEAC announces that Rangoon was taken so quickly that the Japanese had no time to destroy the installations there. German envoys meet Montgomery at his HQ on Lüneburg Heath, South of Hamburg to discuss peace. The envoys return to Donitz and recommend unconditional surrender of all forces facing the 21st Army Group. The German defence system in NW Germany is now in chaos as troops, civilians and refugees pour west to escape the Russian advance. General Wolz surrenders Hamburg to the British Second Army and declares Hamburg an open city. The U.S. Ninth Army makes contact with the Russians in the Wismar area. The U.S. Third Army crosses the river Inn, while the U.S. Seventh Army captures Innsbruck and reaches the Brenner Pass.
04/05/1945 Admiral von Friedeburg arrives at Montgomery’s HQ on Lüneburg Heath with German plenipotentiaries. At 8.15pm SHAEF announce that ‘Field Marshal Montgomery has reported to the supreme allied command that all enemy forces in Holland, Northwest Germany and Denmark, have surrendered. The U.S. Ninth Army breaks up the German Ninth and Twelfth Armies. The U.S. Seventh Army takes Innsbruck, Salzburg and Berchtesgarten, which is still smoking after an RAF raid. Field-Marshal von Kleist gives himself up to the U.S. Third Army near Straubing. Kamikaze flyers sink 17 U.S. ships in 24 hours off Okinawa. The U.S. Fifth Army reaches the Brenner Pass. Mauthausen is liberated. Grand Admiral Dönitz, now the newly designated leader of the Reich, orders all U-boats to cease offensive operations and return to their bases (to go into effect fully at 0800 on 5th May): "You have fought like lions!"
05/05/1945 A civilian uprising begins in Prague and is aided by defecting units of the anti-Bolshevist Vlasov Army. German forces in Denmark surrender. Admiral von Friedeburg arrives at General Eisenhower’s HQ in Rheims. General Blaskowitz, the German C-in-C of the Netherlands, surrenders at a ceremony in the small Dutch town of Wagenungen in the presence of Prince Bernhard. The first British victory salvo of war is fired at 3pm from Montgomery’s HQ. Amsterdam is liberated. Eisenhower announces the capitulation of German Army Group ‘C’, which was covering the front from Linz to Swiss frontier. The U.S. Third Army takes Pilsen, Karlsbad and prepares to drive towards Prague.
06/05/1945 The last U-boats of the war sunk with all hands: U-853 and U-881 in the North Atlantic by US destroyer escorts, and U-3523 in the Baltic by the RAF. Breslau surrenders after an 82-day siege, during which the Russians inflicted 29,000 civilian and military casualties and took more than 40,000 prisoners. The U.S. Fifth Army enters Austria from Italy.
07/05/1945 The British Eighth Army crosses the Italian/Austrian border. General Böhne announces the unconditional surrender of German troops in Norway. The German Chief-of-Staff, General Jodl, signs the unconditional surrender to the Russians and western allies at 2.41am. Operations are to cease 1 minute after 12pm GMT on the 8th of May 1945. U-2336 sinks the last allied merchant ships of the war off the Firth of Forth, these are the Norwegian vessels Sneland I and the British Avondale Park. The German Chief-of-Staff, General Jodl, signs Germany's unconditional surrender to the western allies and Russia at 2:41am. Operations are to cease at 1 minute after midnight (GMT) on the 8th May. British troops enter Utrecht to a tumultuous reception.
08/05/1945 VE-Day (Victory-in-Europe Day). An RAF Catalina damages U-320 near Bergen off the coast of Norway. The boat is then scuttled by the crew, no hands lost, becoming the final German submarine lost as a result of combat action in World War 2. German unconditional surrender signed in Reims, France on 7th May takes effect fifty-nine minutes before midnight this date (VE Day--Victory in Europe Day). Allied merchant shipping sunk to U-boats, world-wide from January to the end of hostilities is 103 ships, equaling 403,760 gross tons. 120 U-boats were lost worldwide in the same period. For the entire war the allies lost 3,500 ships. equaling 17,467,818 gross tons, whilst the Germans lost 769 U-boats. In deference to the Russians, the surrender ceremony to the western allies at Rheims of the previous day is repeated before Marshall Zhukov and other Soviet generals at Karlshorst, a suburb of Berlin. After radio appeals early in the day for protection against heavy German shelling, the Prague resistance reaches an agreement with the Germans for the capitulation of the city, as the U.S. 4th Armoured Division from the West and Koniev’s troops from the East approach. The last convoys of German refugees from Eastern Germany arrive in western Baltic ports, ending the largest rescue operation by sea in history. Since the 25th January, a total of 420,000 civilians and wounded soldiers have been evacuated. VE-Day (Victory-in-Europe Day).
09/05/1945 The German garrison in the Channel Islands agree to surrender to British troops after five years of occupation. The surrender terms are signed aboard the destroyer HMS Bulldog, which is moored off St. Hellier. Stalin announces the end of war. German forces of Army Group Kurland surrender. A British naval squadron arrives in Copenhagen harbour to receive the surrender of the remains of German fleet. German forces in the Greek islands surrender. The German garrisons at Lorient, St Nazaire and La Rochelle on the French Atlantic Coast finally surrender. Reich Marshal Goring and his wife, children and staff, surrender to Brigadier General Stack, of the U.S. 36th Division, near Salzburg. Field Marshal Kesselring, C-in-C West, is captured by U.S. troops at the village of Saalfelden, in western Austria.
10/05/1945 The first U-boat to surrender, U-249 puts in at Portland. The Fourteenth Army moves South in central Burma and links up with troops from Arakan in the west, trapping all Japanese to the west of the river Irrawaddy. Russians troops are now in control of Prague after five days of fierce street fighting between German troops and Czech Partisans comes to an end, during which 5,000 civilians have been killed.
11/05/1945 The Red Army launches a final assault against the remnants of Army Group Centre, which is still holding out in Moravia. In a new offensive, the U.S. Tenth Army reaches the suburbs of Naha, the capital of Okinawa. Wewak is captured by the 6th Australian Division. The German garrison at Dunkirk surrenders to Czech troops.
12/05/1945 Very heavy fighting continues on Okinawa, with 125 Japanese aircraft being reported as shot down. General Vlasov, commander of the anti-Bolshevist Russian Liberation Army is handed over to the Russians by the Americans and will be executed for treason in August, 1946. The German garrison in Crete under Major General Bentach surrenders. British relief troops land at St Hélier in Jersey, to an ‘overwhelming’ welcome.
13/05/1945 The British Royal Family and allied military leaders attend a thanks giving service at St. Paul’s Cathedral. The last pockets of German resistance in Czechoslovakia are crushed by the Red Army. Crown Prince Olav, some members of the exiled government and the head of the allied mission, Gen. Sir Andrew Thorne arrive in Oslo. U.S. troops capture Del Monte air base on Mindanao. The Australians clear the Wewak peninsula in New Guinea. Rear Admiral Brüning, the commander of German naval forces, arrives at Felixstowe to sign the unconditional surrender of all boats under his command.
14/05/1945 U-858 surrenders off Delaware, USA, becoming the first German warship to surrender to U.S. forces after the war ends. USAAF B29's firebomb Nagoya, the heaviest raid on the Japanese homeland so far, with 3,500 tons of bombs being dropped, which destroys the Mitsubishi works. The Norwegian resistance movement (Milorg) is officially disbanded. Vienna radio announces the re-establishment of the Austrian Republic. The Anschluss with Germany is declared null and void. British troops occupy the German island of Heligoland in the North Sea.
15/05/1945 The Axis Croation forces that surrendered to British troops in Austria are handed over to Tito's partisans who without delay proceed to massacre them, killing a total of 110,000, including women and children. The U.S. Tenth Army is now within 2,000 yds of Naha docks.
16/05/1945 Heavy fighting continues on Okinawa, as the U.S. 77th Division takes ‘Chocolate Drop Hill’. U-234 surrenders at Portsmouth, New Hampshire, USA. On 16th April 1945 she had departed Norway and was enroute to Japan with an extremely important cargo, which included technical drawings, an Me-262 jet fighter in crates, 550 kg of U-238 uranium ore for atom bomb development, several high ranking German technological experts, and 2 Japanese officers. When Kptlt. Fehler heard of the cease-fire orders on 4 May 1945, he decides to surrender to the Americans, rather than the Canadians, being in a relatively equal position to do either. Still at war with the US, the Japanese officers take their own lives rather than surrender. British troops land on Alderney, taking 3,200 Germans prisoner.
21/05/1945 The British Second Army arrest Himmler (in disguise) at Bremervorde. The Japanese begin the evacuation of Shuri, on Okinawa. Their losses so far are estimated at 48,000 killed out of a garrison of 85,000.
22/05/1945 Sugar Loaf Hill’ on Okinawa is finally taken by U.S. troops after changing hands 11 times in the last few days. Montgomery is appointed as C-in-C of the British force of occupation in Germany and a British member of the allied control commission.
23/05/1945 British troops arrest the Donitz government and the remnants of the German High Command at Flensburg. Himmler commits suicide at the British Second Army HQ on Lüneburg Heath. The heaviest air raid so far on the Japanese homeland, see USAAF bombers drop 4,500 tons of incendiaries on Tokyo. 21% of the city is now burnt out, but the firebombing continues for next four days.
24/05/1945 Japanese paratroops drop on the US airbases on both Okinawa and Ie. The exchange of Russian POW's for U.S. and British POW's begins at pre-arranged points in Germany.
25/05/1945 The U.S. Joint Chiefs complete the plan for Operation 'Olympic', which sets the date to invade the Japanese mainland as no later that the 1st November 1945.
27/05/1945 The U.S. Sixth Army takes Santa Fe on Luzon. Chinese troops are now 25 miles North of Foochow and take Loyaun.
28/05/1945 The British Twelfth Army HQ is set up in Rangoon.
29/05/1945 SHAEF in Paris says that there are an estimated 4.25 million displaced persons in the Anglo-American zone, of which only 1.39 million have so far been repatriated, most of these to Western Europe.
30/05/1945 A White Paper on full employment is tabled to the Australian Parliament.
31/05/1945 Osaka is totally burnt out by U.S. incendiaries. Chiang Kai-Shek resigns the Chinese Premiership but remains as President and Generalissimo, with Dr. Soong succeeding him as premier.

01/06/1945 U.S. troops make new landings on Okinawa as forces from the East and West coasts link up South of Shuri.
04/06/1945 U.S. troops land on the Oriko peninsula of Okinawa.
05/06/1945 Moscow Radio announces the award of the highest Russian honour, the 'Order of Victory', to Montgomery and Eisenhower. The four allied powers sign a declaration on the defeat of Germany, which divides the country into four zones.
06/06/1945 The Anniversary of D-Day, sees Eisenhower order a holiday for troops in Europe. Allied casualties from D-Day to VE-Day were 776,967 of which 141,590 killed. Naha airbase on Okinawa is now being used to hit Japan.
07/06/1945 King Haakon VII returns to Norway, on the fifth anniversary of his leaving the country. The first allied cargo ship for three years enters Wewak harbour, in New Guinea.
08/06/1945 SHAEF reveal the details of the German plans to exterminate all Jews in Europe by the summer 1946.
09/06/1945 The Japanese on the Oroku peninsula are reported as trapped. Tokyo radio says that 4.93m Japanese have been displaced by the bombing in the last three months.
10/06/1945 The Australian 9th Division makes two landings in Brunei Bay, Borneo.
11/06/1945 SEAC estimate that 108,240 Japanese have been killed in Burma since February 1944.
12/06/1945 Eisenhower is awarded the Order of Merit and becomes the first U.S. recipient.
13/06/1945 U.S. and Australian troops enter Brunei, in Borneo.
18/06/1945 The USAAF begins the fireblitzing of 58 smaller Japanese cities. British demobilisation begins. Eisenhower arrives in Washington to a hero’s welcome.
19/06/1945 The Australians are now in control of both sides of the Brunei Bay entrance.
20/06/1945 Australians troops land at Lutong on Sarawak and gain 25 miles to the Seria oilfields.
21/06/1945 Organised resistance on Okinawa ends after 82 days of the bloodiest fighting in the Pacific, during which 98,654 Japanese have been killed and 6,922 captured. U.S. loses were 6,990 killed and 29,598 wounded.
23/06/1945 The San Francisco Conference Co-ordination Committee, completes the text of the UN Charter.
24/06/1945 A Great Victory Parade in Moscow’s Red Square, sees Zhukov takes the salute in Stalin’s presence.
25/06/1945 The UN Charter is signed by representatives at San Francisco. The allies announce the division of Austria into four administrative zones. British Second Army in Germany is to be disbanded and sent back to Britain.
27/06/1945 The U.S. Sixth Army reaches Aparri, effectively ending the campaign on Luzon.
28/06/1945 The Japanese casualty figures on Luzon are 113,593 killed and U.S. loses are just 3,793.
30/06/1945 The Chinese take Liuchow and capture towns on the Indo-Chinese border.

01/07/1945 The U.S. 2nd Armoured Division from Halle enter Berlin in accordance with the four-power agreement over the division of Germany into zones. The Australian 7th Division lands at Balikpapan on South East coast of Borneo after a 15-day bombardment
02/07/1945 The British capture secret documents concerning a planned breakout of Honda’s 33rd Army in Burma. The U.S. submarine Trenchant sinks a Hagura Class Japanese cruiser in the Southwest Pacific.

04/07/1945 The British 7th Armoured Division, ‘The Desert Rats’ enters Berlin to establish the British sector.
05/07/1945 SHAEF says of the 5.8m displaced persons (found in the Anglo-American Zone, 3.26m have been repatriated and 2.53m, mostly Eastern Europeans) still remain in repatriation camps. MacArthur announces the liberation of the whole of the Philippines, although sporadic fighting continues until after the Japanese surrender. U.S. losses total 11,921 dead and 42,970 injured or captured. The Australian Prime Minister, John Curtin, dies.
06/07/1945 Norway declares war on Japan. More than 800 Norwegians are in Japanese POW camps.
10/07/1945 The USSR, U.K. and U.S. agree on the administration of greater Berlin and decide that France is to be included.
12/07/1945 Further allied landings are reported on Borneo. The Australians capture Maradi in the west of the island.
13/07/1945 Chifley is elected leader of Labour Party and becomes Prime Minister of Australia.
14/07/1945 The first Bastille Day for five years is celebrated enthusiastically by the French. The U.S. Third Fleet shells Kamaishi, 275 miles north of Tokyo.
15/07/1945 The U.S. Third Fleet shells the steel centre on Hokkaido Island in the Japanese homeland. It is reported that 108,000 tons of shipping has been sunk in last two days attacks. The Australians take Prince Alexander Range in Borneo after an eight-week
16/07/1945 At 5.30 am, the first atomic bomb is exploded at a test site in Los Alamos, USA
17/07/1945 The Three-Power Summit Conference opens at Potsdam.
18/07/1945 Honda’s attempt to break out in Burma begins in earnest. Allied carrier planes hit Japanese naval forces in Tokyo Bay, sinking 12 ships and damaging nine, including the battleship Nagato.
23/07/1945 The Allies launch a massive 36-hour air and sea bombardment of Kure naval base and other ports on the Japanese coast from Osaka to Nagoya, sinking and escort carrier and 12 other warships, as well as 84 cargo vessels sunk or damaged and over 200 planes destroyed or damaged.
25/07/1945 A Proclamation to the Japanese people is issued by UK, U.S and China from Potsdam, which warns of devastation from the ‘final blows’ and calls for Japans unconditional surrender.
26/07/1945 Clement Attlee is elected as Prime Minister of Great Britain.
28/07/1945 The remnants of Japanese battle fleet are destroyed in three days of attacks over the Japanese Inland Sea, as the Americans deploy 2,000 carrier-planes and bombers in action.
30/07/1945 British, U.S. and French troops enter Vienna. The Japanese reject the Potsdam ultimatum, so the Joint Chiefs order the plans for Japanese surrender to be drawn up.
31/07/1945 A British midget submarine attack on Singapore sinks the Japanese heavy cruiser Takao. The French collaboration trials have so far resulted in 1,629 death sentences, 757 hard labour for life, 5,328 other hard labour, 1,136 solitary confinement, 11,073 prison sentences, 22,137 to suffer national degradation and 3,564 acquitted.

03/08/1945 The USN announce on Guam, that the complete blockade of the Japanese homeland has now been achieved.
06/08/1945 U.S. carrier aircraft from a naval task group strike Japanese shipping in Tinghai Harbour, China. U.S. carrier aircraft bomb Wake Island, Micronesia. The Belgians announce that 2,117 collaborators have been sentenced to death, out of 16,000 found guilty. U.S. B-29 "Enola Gay" drops a 3 metre long atomic bomb "Little Boy" on Hiroshima, Japan, killing an estimated 140,000 people in the first use of a nuclear weapon in warfare and wiping out 10 square kms. The U.S. First Army arrives on Luzon to prepare for final assault on Japan.
08/08/1945 The Russians declare war on Japan.
09/08/1945 Soviet Army massed at the Manchurian border sweeps into northern China and northern Korea overwhelming the Japanese defences. U.S. B-29 "Bocks Car" drops atomic bomb "Fat Man" on Nagasaki, Japan. Two-thirds of the city of 250,000 inhabitants is destroyed and 113,000 people die. Truman broadcasts from Washington about Potsdam conference and the atom bomb.
13/08/1945 Surrender documents are sent to MacArthur in Philippines. The Mongolian People’s Republic declares a Holy War against the Japanese.
14/08/1945 Chiang Kai-shek’s representatives sign a treaty of alliance with the Russians. The Japanese Cabinet decide at a morning meeting in Imperial Palace to surrender to allies. An 8.10 pm reply to the allied ultimatum is handed to the Swiss Foreign Minister by the Japanese Minister in Berne. Truman calls a Press Conference at midnight to announce the 'Unconditional Surrender' of Japan. USAAF B29's launch the last air raid of the war against Kumagaya.
15/08/1945 The Japanese Government resigns and the war minister commits suicide. MacArthur becomes the Supreme Commander for Allied Powers in the Pacific. VJ-Day is declared in Britain and huge crowds cheer King and Queen en route to Westminster for the State opening of Parliament. The British release details of one of most closely guarded secrets of war, RADAR.
16/08/1945 Rationing of gasoline and fuel oil comes to an end in the USA.
17/08/1945 Three of the Emperor’s family are dispatched to China to carry the news of cease-fire to Japanese troops still fighting there.
19/08/1945 The Japanese forces in South China surrender to the Chinese 1st Army in Canton. The Russian Far Eastern Army captures Harbin and Mukden in Manchuria. 16 Japanese surrender envoys arrive on Ie and are taken to Manila for a 5 and a half hour discussion with MacArthur and his staff. Japanese troops on Java receive the cease-fire order.
20/08/1945 Further negotiations in Manila. The Japanese leave at 1pm. MacArthur says that U.S. troops will land on the Japanese mainland within 10 days of signing the surrender.
21/08/1945 The Japanese announce that the first U.S. landings will be on the 26th August. A non-fraternisation rule with the Japanese is to be enforced by the U.S. As the Red Army now hold much of Manchuria, the Japanese Kwantung Army surrenders formally to Major General Shelakor at Harbin.
22/08/1945 MacArthur says the surrender will be signed in the Tokyo area on the 31st August. U.S. War Office estimates that there are a quarter of a million POW's and civilian internees in Japanese hands at present.
Sagami Bay after completing their first and only operational trip.
23/08/1945 The Japanese official casualty figures from air raids including A-bombs are 260,000 killed, 412,000 injured, 9.2 million homeless, along with 44 cities being completely wiped out. The Japanese in Burma say they are now ready to surrender having ‘clarified the position’.
24/08/1945 The Japanese news agency says that all Japanese troops are to be out of the U.S. landing area by tomorrow.
25/08/1945 Tokyo radio reports large numbers of people committing Hari-kiri in front of the Imperial Palace. Chinese troops are reported to have entered the Republican capital of Nanking. 7 U-boat men are executed at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas for the murder of a fellow U-Boat man, Werner Drechsler who they had judged as a traitor.
27/08/1945 One of the greatest international armadas ever assembled, enters the Bay of Sagami, Tokyo.
28/08/1945 The Japanese sign the surrender agreement in Rangoon.
29/08/1945 The Russians announce the capture of 513,000 prisoners in the Manchurian campaign. The lists of the first war criminals to be tried at Nuremberg are drawn up by a 'Four Power' Commission of Prosecutors in London. Goring, Hess, von Ribbentrop, Dr Ley, Rosenberg, Dr Frank, Streicher, Keitel, Dr Funk, von Shirach, Dr Schacht, Sauckel, Prof Speer, Bormann, von Papen, Jodl, Krupp, Raeder, Donitz, Baron von Neurath, Seyss-Inquart
and Frische are all named. U.S. Marines and troops of 11th Airborne Division land in Tokyo Bay.
30/08/1945 Two Japanese submarines, the largest in the world (5,500 tons), surrender inU.S. occupation of Japan begins, 11th Airborne Division lands at Atsugi airfield and 4th Marine Regiment lands at Kurihama naval base at Yokosuka and report ‘obsequious bows and smiles’ from soldiers and civilians. A Royal Naval force takes Hong Kong as marine's clash with Japanese suicide detachments.
31/08/1945 As U.S. troops release POW's, many reports of systematic degradation are heard. Tokyo is reported as 85% bomb damaged, although this is not as bad as Berlin. Japanese garrison at Marcus Island surrenders to the Americans.

02/09/1945 The formal Japanese surrender takes place aboard the USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay.
04/09/1945 Emperor Hirohito asks his people to co-operate in setting up a peaceful state.
06/09/1945 Japanese forces in Southwest Pacific surrender aboard HMS Glory.
08/09/1945 The first American troops enter Tokyo itself.
10/09/1945 Vidkun Quisling, the Norwegian Nazi leader, is sentenced to death in Oslo.
11/09/1945 Forty prominent Japanese are arrested for war crimes. Tojo, who ordered the raid on Pearl Harbour attempts suicide.
12/09/1945 Mountbatten accepts the surrender of all Japanese troops in Southeast Asia.
15/09/1945 The fifth anniversary of the Battle of Britain, sees 300 RAF aircraft fly over London.
18/10/1945 The first open session of the International Military War Crimes Tribunal indicts 21 top Nazis.
19/09/1945 William Joyce (Lord Haw Haw) is sentenced to be hanged for treason.
21/09/1945 Ghandi, Nehru, and the all-India Congress Party demands that all Southeast Asia should be free of imperialist domination.
25/09/1945 The last Russian soldier leaves Norwegian territory near Storskog at 8.55pm. The Nazi party is officially declared illegal in Germany.

02/10/1945 General Patton is removed from command for remarks that were allegedly sympathetic to former Nazis.
08/10/1945 Rudolph Hess is flown from England to Germany to stand trial.
13/10/1945 French troops are fighting in Vietnam.
16/10/1945 Peron returns to Argentine politics as a ‘strong man’.
21/10/1945 The U-boat pens in Hamburg are blown up by British Engineers using German explosives.
24/10/1945 The United Nations formally comes into being with twenty-nine ratification's having been received. Vidkun Quisling is executed in Norway by firing squad.

01/11/1945 British Intelligence reports that Hitler probably committed suicide on the 30th April in Berlin after marrying his mistress, Eva Braun.
12/11/1945 The institute of France awards Churchill a gold medal.
13/11/1945 General de Gaulle is elected head of the provisional French government.
20/11/1945 The Nuremberg trials begin, with Goring, Ribbentrop, Hess, Keitel, JodI, Raeder, Doenitz, Streicher and other top Nazis on trial.
21/11/1945 All the top ranking Nazis at Nuremberg plead innocent.
23/11/1945 Butter rationing comes to an end, leaving sugar as the only item that continues to be rationed in the USA.
28/11/1945 The official Hiroshima and Nagasaki casualty figures are announced as between 110,000 and 165,00 dead.
29/11/1945 Films of concentration camp atrocities are shown at the Nuremberg trials.
30/11/1945 Rudolph Hess causes consternation at the Nuremberg trials by announcing that he has been shamming insanity and amnesia all this time.

01/12/1945 76 German industrialists who helped Hitler are arrested.
02/12/1945 59 Japanese are arrested on suspicion of war crimes.
04/12/1945 The U.S. Senate votes to allow the USA to join the UN and to permit the UN to use American forces to preserve peace and security.
09/12/1945 General Patton is seriously injured in car crash in Germany.
14/12/1945 SS personnel convicted of atrocities at Belsen and other concentration camps, are hanged.
15/12/1945 The Permanent Headquarters for UN are to be established in the USA. MacArthur orders the end of Shinto as official religion of Japan.
17/12/1945 The Senate votes for U.S. help in establishing a Jewish homeland in Palestine.
19/12/1945 Eleanor Roosevelt, the widow of the late President is appointed as one of first U.S. delegates to the UN.
21/12/1945 General Patton dies from his injuries.

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